iPMI Magazine Is Proudly Sponsored By:
For a healthier journey.

Welcome To The IPMI Market Research Report Centre

Welcome to the iPMI Magazine online report centre, designed specifically with your businesses educational needs in mind. Here you may browse a range of highly specialist, niche, market research reports covering the hottest topics in the insurance industry today.

iPMI Magazine

iPMI Magazine

International Private Medical Insurance Magazine (iPMIM) is the ultimate Health and Medical Insurance Digital Media serving expatriate, corporate, health and travel insurance markets. Due to the nomadic nature of the international healthcare industry iPMI Magazine is an internet based news service, for worldwide healthcare professionals, who need to understand the impacts of healthcare and insurance policy, regulatory, and legislative developments. Combined with in depth health insurance industry analysis, best-in-class health insurance industry data, and exclusive, C-Suite Executive health insurance interviews and round tables, iPMI Magazine bridges an information gap between healthcare payor, provider and patient. Written by the health and medical insurance industry, for the health and medical insurance industry, iPMIM is supported and designed by leading international medical insurance companies and service providers.

Website URL:

AXA Publishes Its Annual Study Of Mind Health And Wellbeing

AXA launches its 2022 edition of Mind Health and Wellbeing study. This study looks at the current state of mind health, examining how we react to stress, how we choose to diagnose mental illness, how mind health differs by age and gender and what individuals can do to improve their wellbeing.

More than 11,000 participants were surveyed by IPSOS research institute, in eleven markets across Europe and Asia.

The study identifies gaps, prioritization of one's own mental health, and the urgency to raise awareness for preventative solutions. 36% of people say the pandemic boosted their ability to deal with difficult situations. Yet only 44% of those surveyed said they had felt happy or experienced joy in the past year. Respondents who find themselves happiest are in China (57%), Spain (50%) and Switzerland (54%), a high level compared to Japan (27%), Italy (37%) and France (39%).

When facing these challenges, only 37% of participants think the public health system in their country provides adequate support - this is particularly notable in Italy (24%) and UK (23%) while respondents seem to have greater trust in China (65%) and Switzerland (58%). Also 37% of people feel their employer provides good support when it comes to mind health, with the lowest level in Japan (20%) and Hong Kong (32%). This shows a major role for companies and health care systems in improving prevention, support, and care around mind health and wellbeing.

As such, AXA is taking concrete actions:

  • The Group today announces the launch of the AXA Mind Health Index aiming to monitor progress made in mind health over time. The Index, tailored by country, will support individuals, businesses, healthcare professionals, and policymakers in their approach to mind health, to help them prevent illness, and promote wellbeing.
  • Concrete and innovative solutions will continue to be developed for clients and employees through existing services such as deployed by AXA France, the Emma app by AXA Hong Kong, Be Supported helpline for employees and managers and Mental Health awareness training by AXA UK Health, a central Mental Health platform by AXA Germany, as well as other services in Spain and Italy, or AXA’s global health and wellness program for employees.
  • Further offers will be deployed such as a new psychological consultation platform called Mind Healer for AXA Hong Kong customers, the mental wellbeing assessment in the new AXA Health UK app or the Digital Healthcare Platform with Microsoft, which was launched across Europe in 2021.
Antimo Perretta, CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER EUROPE AND LATIN AMERICA, AXA, comments, "The cost of undiagnosed and poorly managed mental illnesses is colossal. The OECD puts the economic impact at up to 4.2% of GDP. As an international leader in health insurance, AXA wants to have a positive impact on mind health and wellbeing at scale to better prevent health issues. Through this study, we are proud to offer a holistic approach, focused on being a positive force for human progress by helping people to prevent and deal with problems early on, promoting their happiness and satisfaction, whilst protecting their emotional wellbeing. Our Mind Health Study has unlocked some valuable insights. I am confident that future research, our own as well as others, will continue to empower us to flourish as individuals and communities."

Introducing MedinyX Technologies

Extensive domain knowledge, technological adaptations, and cutting-edge solutions make MedinyX Technologies the pioneer in developing comprehensive software solutions for insurance and assistance companies across the globe.

Our innovative insurance software solutions help companies achieve their business goals in all insurance industry segments, such as Health, Life, Travel, Motor, and assistance with exceptional operational efficiency.

"e-MPOWERING YOUR BUSINESS TODAY FOR TOMORROW" is our motto, and we strive hard to make our customers future-ready with novel approaches.

MedinyX relies on the power of advanced technologies such as AI, Big data analysis, Predictive Analytics, Machine learning, etc., to fuel our solutions. Such systems make life much easier for your insurance agents and assistance firms with their extended capabilities and intuitive designs.

Our solutions with their data-driven approach reduce human errors, prevent fraud attempts, and enhance customer experience through automated settlement processes.

Apart from reducing operational expenses, such solutions help companies design tailor-made policies for their target market and expand their clientele to new areas.

MedinyX aims to make insurance automation available to all through a diverse pool of digital solutions ranging from Complete automation suite to APIs. Our highly modular platforms enable customers to extend their capabilities by incorporating additional modules into their existing systems.

Our ready to deploy digital solutions include insurance claims management software, insurance agency management systems, insurance policy management software, insurance quoting software, claims management software, healthcare software solutions, case management platform, CRM for insurance agents, etc., and much more.

Such a flexible approach helps companies scale their operations on the fly without huge upfront investment. Similarly, you can integrate additional features to your website or application using APIs

"White Label Apps" improves your customer loyalty with its powerful features and simple-to-use interfaces.

High levels of interoperability make migrations from legacy systems a seamless experience without any downtime or functional issues.

Insurance accounting is to be re-defined in one of the most important, wide-ranging reforms in many years. From 2023 a new standard, IFRS 17, will replace the current standard, IFRS 4.

This change comes as the industry is battling the effects of COVID-19 and, in particular, a recent decision by UK’s Supreme Court allowing hundreds of businesses to claim insurance pay-outs for their losses caused by the pandemic.

For insurers, this means overcoming a number of hurdles and taking immediate action.

Why IFRS 17?

Introduced in 2004, IFRS 4 is an interim standard that allows flexibility in insurance accounting practices. However, the variations, especially across different regions, made it difficult to fulfil the key objective of an accounting standard — allowing comparisons and being transparent.

IFRS 17 is intended to be the first harmonized accounting standard across the entire insurance sector. The aim is to make it easier to compare financial statements issued by insurance companies. It will also increase the alignment of accounting practices in the industry with those of other sectors.

HIPPA Compliance

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) governs the privacy and security of each individual's PHI (protected Health Information) during its storage, transfer, and processing. Any violations of the guidelines can be fatal to the organization.

MedinyX ensures complete HIPAA compliance in all our solutions through a multi-level process involving staff training, impenetrable servers, data security, and continuous data availability.

Company: MedinyX Technologies OÜ

Address: Harju maakond, Tallinn, Lasnamäe linnaosa, Sepapaja tn 6, 15551, Estonia.





Introducing AMA Global Assistance

AMA Global Assistance, is a niche firm specializing and focusing on global international insurance and services. AMA Global, serves its millions of members across the globe specialising in the field of accident, Health, Cyber and motor.

AMA does everything to provide invaluable local knowledge and expertise on a global scale while offering all our clients truly personal service. We help businesses operate globally by helping protect their employees to meet their Duty of Care. Through the provision of medical and travel security services, we look to help our clients demonstrate a "Return on Prevention"-- meeting ethical and fiscal concerns.

The AMA Group founded in 1970 focuses on qualitative Healthcare services and products within the healthcare industry. Our Philosophy is based on consistency and ethics.

AMA Group is a long standing organization in the healthcare sector that has always dedicated itself putting Quality and Ethics at first. Our job is to help people improve their lives. Whether it is hospitalization, medication, Assistance in remote areas our commitment stays alive. With established products and professionals we try harder every minute of the day as lives are precious.

Company: AMA Assistance GmbH

Address: Vienna Le Palais Herrengasse 1-3, 2nd floor 1010 Wien, Austria.

Phone: +43 720 115 351

Email: .





AXA Partners Introduces Health Elect To Provide Access To US Health Insurance

Health Elect is a health insurance marketplace that offers customers an accessible way to purchase affordable and flexible short-term health insurance and medical indemnity health plans.

This year, Americans will find they have more plan choices and continue to benefit from lower insurance costs, thanks to the American Rescue Plan that makes it easy to find affordable and quality health care coverage.

AXA Partners, a globally-recognized organization  delivering health, travel, and cost containment services, has launched an innovative health insurance website, Health Elect, that allows customers to explore health insurance options and select the right policies for themselves. AXA Partners' goal is to deliver a simple and quick way to browse and purchase US health insurance policies from a selection of carriers through a direct-to-consumer marketplace.

Currently, Health Elect is distributing short-term health insurance plans, medical indemnity insurance, ACA (Affortable Care Act) health insurance plus critical illness, accidental death and dismemberment, vision and dental plans.

“I’m very excited about the launch of the AXA Health Elect site. Typically, searching for quality health insurance can be challenging with so many companies offering different coverages. Through AXA Health Elect our customers have the ability to select from a variety of top tier insurance companies for the coverages they actually need” said Blessy George, AXA Partners US CEO.

With Health Elect, consumers visiting the website will have access to all the details and information about each health insurance plan offered in their area. They can easily review and compare various health insurance plan options to find out which one fits their budget, lifestyle, and family the most.  They can also find out whether they are eligible for financial assistance, which can help them pay for premiums or reduce deductibles when receiving services. They can also find plans that can help them get benefits as early as the next day.

Medical beneficiaries interested in using Health Elect can apply for their chosen health insurance plan online or by phone from the safety and comfort of their homes.

For individuals who require personal assistance in understanding the benefits and terms and conditions of a plan, the Health Elect customer care team is available Monday – Friday from 8am to 8pm EST to answer all questions related to the service.

IMG Welcomes Dina Tarantola-Froner As Chief Underwriting Officer

International Medical Group® (IMG®) is excited to introduce Dina Tarantola-Froner as the company's new Chief Underwriting Officer. Dina joins the IMG team with more than 30 years of underwriting experience and extensive knowledge of the insurance industry.

Dina will be responsible for leading the global underwriting and products teams at IMG where she will ensure underwriting and product initiatives meet the needs of today's dynamic and competitive global marketplace. Additionally, Dina will work alongside the senior leadership team to strengthen the company's underwriting strategy and create business plans that further position IMG as the leader of travel and health safety solutions for people traveling and residing away from home.

"I want to make sure IMG is making sound underwriting decisions and that there are efficient processes in place to provide excellent service to all of our stakeholders in our various segments," Dina said. "I'm excited for the opportunity to apply my knowledge and experience to help drive strategic growth at IMG."

Prior to joining IMG, Dina held senior leadership roles at Liberty Mutual Insurance, Hartford Financial Services, and AIG—where she spent 25 years, ultimately serving as the National Underwriting Officer and overseeing all accident and health underwriting for the U.S. and Canada.

A lifelong New Yorker from Brooklyn, Dina is married with two children. She says she looks forward to making a global impact through her new role as Chief Underwriting Officer at IMG.

"We're excited to welcome Dina to IMG. Her extensive underwriting and leadership experience makes her a fantastic addition to the team," said IMG President and CEO, Steve Paraboschi. "I'm confident that Dina will be able to successfully assist IMG on our path to continued growth in the marketplace."

GBG Introduces New Brand and Website

Global Benefits Group (GBG), a specialty insurance organization administering international health, life, disability, and travel insurance today announced the launch of its new brand and newly designed website,

The redesigned site brings together their regions and divisions all under one holistic site.

The new website provides visitors and partners with a simpler way to learn about GBG’s capabilities on a cutting-edge platform. 

Chris DiSipio, Chief Executive Officer, Global Benefits Group, comments, "We are proud to introduce the new GBG brand as it aligns with our continued dedication to serve customers around the world."

GBG has nearly 40 years of experience providing support and guidance around the world.  The new brand demonstrates the passionate team of experts that handles the intricacies of international insurance so clients can live their life no matter where their lives take them…Go, we’ll be there!

Learn more by watching our latest corporate video, then come explore the new GBG at

ABOUT GBG: Global Benefits Group (GBG) is a global insurance group that administers and underwrites international health, life, disability, and travel insurance. With a client base that spans multinational corporations, expatriates, international students, high net-worth individuals, international schools, and non-profit organizations, GBG is committed to delivering outstanding customer service to the globally mobile population.

Global Benefits Group (GBG) is the marketing name for GBGI Limited and its subsidiary and affiliated companies. 

International Private Medical Insurance Magazine Provider Network Directory January 2022

Welcome to iPMI Magazine 2022.

The January 2022 edition of the International Private Medical Insurance Magazine Provider Network Directory, is out now, featuring over 80 pages of international private medical insurance and medical assistance company intelligence.

The iPMI Magazine network consists of a wide range of leading international medical payors and service providers, on call, 24/7 to assist you manage worldwide medical risks during a global pandemic.

The international medical insurance network covers all sectors of the global medical insurance business, and you can use the directory to source new partners and service providers. Simply use the the contact details within the network directory to connect with new partners and customers. 

The IPMI market use the iPMI Magazine Provider Network Directory to source the best information and data on international private medical insurance payors and providers. They may be searching for a new partner, looking for a contact number of a current provider, or researching the payor and provider market for future cross border network development.


Classifications include: IPMI, Assistance, Air Ambulance, Cost Containment And Claims Management, Funeral Directors, Ground Ambulance, Healthcare Insurance Management and Pharmacy Benefits Management.

Current Provider Network Members 

Click a company name below to visit their micro web site on iPMIM and learn more or download the brand new e-directory using the above link. To add your business to the e-directory and launch a micro website please write to David Bond, CIO, iPMIM on ipmi[at]










AXA Completes Sale Of AXA Bank Belgium

AXA has announced that it has completed the sale of its Belgian banking operations, AXA Bank Belgium, to Crelan Bank NV/SA (“Crelan”), for a total consideration* of Euro 691 million, comprised of (i) a net cash consideration of Euro 611 million** , and (ii) the transfer to AXA Belgium of 100% of Crelan Insurance*** (valued at Euro 80 million).

In addition, AXA and Crelan have entered into a long-term P&C and Protection insurance distribution partnership which will be effective on January 1, 2022, extending the existing partnership between AXA Bank Belgium and AXA Belgium to the entire Crelan network.

Thomas Buberl, CEO, AXA comments, "The completion of this transaction marks another step in AXA’s simplification journey. We are pleased to maintain strong links with AXA Bank Belgium through this long-term partnership and to further extend it to Crelan’s network. I would like to thank the AXA Bank Belgium teams for their continuous contribution and engagement over the years and wish them all the success for the future with Crelan, leveraging on their combined scale and product offering."
The parties have amended their original agreement whereby AXA has today subscribed Additional Tier 1 debt**** issued by Crelan for an issue price of Euro 245 million instead of acquiring a minority equity stake of 9.9% in Crelan for Euro 90 million, as communicated at the time of the signing of the transaction. As per the terms of the initial agreement, Crelan has also purchased for Euro 90 million the contingent convertible bonds previously issued by AXA Bank Belgium to AXA Group. The completion of the transaction is expected to result in a positive impact of 4 points on AXA Group’s Solvency II ratio in 4Q21.

* In cash terms, AXA S.A. will receive Euro 691 million for the sale of AXA Bank Belgium and AXA Belgium will pay Crelan Euro 80 million for the purchase of Crelan Insurance.

** Including a price adjustment reflecting customary closing conditions.

*** The insurance company of Crelan, providing protection insurance linked to loans originated by Crelan.

**** Perpetual debt callable in 2027, subscribed by both AXA S.A. and AXA Belgium.

iPMI Magazine Speaks With Angela Smith, Head Of Proposition Development, Charles Taylor Assistance

Why is innovation so important to the health of the international assistance sector? As the Covid-19 pandemic shines a spotlight on global medical assistance, we ask Angela Smith, head of proposition development for Charles Taylor Assistance, to answer some key questions about the role of innovation in the sector

What’s driving innovation in global medical assistance?

The Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated demand from travellers for easy access to information and advice about real-time health and security risks abroad; covering everything from Covid-related travel restrictions to terrorist attacks.

Customers overseas want to know that a skilled assistance specialist will be available when they need them, that relevant information will be obtained quickly and efficiently and that queries about policies and claims validations will be settled speedily. In this context, they want to know that digitisation will ease their pre-and post-claims journeys and accelerate settlements where appropriate.

All this is putting the onus on assistance providers to create more bespoke solutions for insurer clients and their customers than ever.  In today’s climate, providers are expected to work with clients not just to establish their bespoke needs but also to offer the flexibility that enables them to choose the level at which they manage new products themselves, such as claims data dashboards and automated alerts.

In its Travel Megatrends 2025 report, the travel news site Skift reported that brands that embrace agility and flexibility will be equipped for the future of travel. And this couldn’t be more accurate.

What role does digitisation play?  

According to McKinsey’s Digital Patient Survey, more than 75% of all patients expect to use digital services in the future. And digitisation is already transforming both the medical claims journey and the travel risk mitigation landscape.

Seamless and fluid assistance is being driven by tools such as digital doctor, which integrates video doctor and advanced diagnostic services into the medical assistance process. Meanwhile, wider ways of enabling customers abroad to reach out for help and to improve information and assistance delivery are also being explored by the assistance sector, for instance via telemedicine and AI.

At the same time, reliance on mobile technology has driven services such as digital claims, single-source medical and security assistance, risk management alerts and automated medical screening. Other automated processes, such as bespoke telephony technology,  multi-currency payment technology, digital document signing and workflow management aids are also integral to the global assistance sector. And automation is easing processes with assistance suppliers and customers alike.  

But this provision needs to be constantly developed to drive further efficiencies in claims handling, supplier management, global network integration, cost containment, information gathering and more.

Why does innovation need to be a balancing act?

Recent digital developments here at Charles Taylor include Venture: a digital health risk assessment tool that helps corporates manage duty of care obligations for back-to-work and back-to-travel scenarios during the pandemic. Importantly, clients can choose the aspects of this process that they want to manage.

We’re also using digitisation to contain costs and create efficiencies via Discovery, our new court-compliant social media and open-source digital investigation tool for the fraud investigation arena. This uses algorithms to search over 220 open source and social media sites for impactful intelligence about claims and sets off referral alerts to professional investigators.

We recognise that technology is essential to capture important data and ease processes, but it will always need to be complemented by in-house human expertise. Niche skills, supported by innovative training are essential to ensure that assistance cases are managed effectively, interventions are made at the right time and customers’ individual needs are met, especially when they feel vulnerable. After all, every customer is different.

Skills management and maintenance, together with efficient knowledge transfer are critical in this respect and the frequency of training is as important as the methods.

How can we future-proof the assistance sector?

Today, looking beyond Covid, the assistance sector needs to prepare not just for current risks, such as pandemics and terrorism, but also for the lesser known impact of issues such as climate change. We need to ask ourselves, for instance, if climate change will drive travellers away from traditional tourist destinations, disrupting not just where, but when they go abroad and how they get there? Or if increasingly unpredictable weather patterns will create more emergencies overseas - and if we need to adapt assistance provision to mitigate this?

Cutting-edge technology, flexibility, human expertise and collaboration will, together, be key to effective innovation in this respect.  So too will investment in research and development.  And we need to bear this in mind as we forge ahead in today’s ever-changing travel landscape.

Global Ventures Attracts New Investment For Its Second Fund From Bupa Arabia

Global Ventures, the UAE-based international venture capital firm investing in emerging market founders, technology and ideas scaling across MEA and the world, is excited to announce new investment from Bupa Arabia, the leading health insurance company in the region.

Bupa Arabia’s participation in Global Ventures Fund II as strategic partner will foster the healthcare ecosystem in the region and particularly in Saudi Arabia. The investment by Bupa Arabia is part of the company’s strategy to participate and invest in disruptive healthcare and insurance technologies, amongst other targeted growth sectors. The company had recently announced receiving regulatory approvals to establish Bupa Arabia Ventures; which will expand its investment portfolio in technology companies.

Global Ventures’ second fund is focused on technology companies addressing critical needs and demands in recently accelerated industries. It continues to be a leading provider of capital and value creation for start-ups in the region, with a timely and increasing focus on Digital Health.

To date, Global Ventures has invested in 44 companies, across 10 markets, using capital from its two funds.

Noor Sweid, Founder & General Partner of Global Ventures, commented, “Global Ventures’ Fund I has been a great success, and we are delighted to welcome Bupa Arabia to Fund II, and also join us in a deeper, strategic partnership. Bupa Arabia shares our outlook and ambition on the Digital Health sector, and its potential for technology and innovation to deliver long-term economic benefits particularly in emerging markets.”

Nader Ashoor, Chief Financial Officer of Bupa Arabia said, “We are excited about Global Ventures’ Fund II prospects. We are quite pleased with Global Ventures governance, capabilities, investment approach and track record, and look forward to activate our strategic partnership in the new future.”      

Global Ventures is a UAE-based international venture capital firm, investing in founders and ideas scaling across emerging markets. Global Ventures backs global-minded founders that are leading growth-stage companies and using technology to transform emerging markets.

Portfolio companies include Altibbi, Arrow Labs, Buseet, Cartona, Elmenus, Floranow, Helium Health, Holiday Me, Mamo, Much:on, Ogram, Paymob, Proximie, Pyypl, Spider Silk, Tabby, Tarabut Gateway, Team Apt, Tribal, Yodawy and Zension.

Noor Sweid and Basil Moftah are the General Partners of Global Ventures.

Bupa Arabia is a leading healthcare insurance company in Saudi Arabia with a purpose to help people live, longer, healthier, happier lives and make a better world. In doing so, it has been leading the industry’s service innovation such as Tebtom program - that offers a bouquet of healthcare services such as chronic management, medication refill and delivery, maternity and childcare and international second medical opinion – and Rahatkom program – that offers its insured members red carpet services at the providers to guide and facilitate their services at the points of care.

Its revamped smart phones app has exceeded 1.5 million downloads offering members with personalized and innovative services with instant medical appointments being the latest introduction.

Bupa Arabia has recently received the regulatory approval to establish Bupa Arabia Ventures, the first healthcare corporate venture capital firm focused on investing in disruptive technologies in the region and beyond.



Subscribe to this RSS feed

iPMI Magazine Market Research Reports

International Health Insurance (IPMI) 2021

International Health Insurance (IPMI) 2021

Leading international private medical insurance publisher iPMI Magazine is excited to announce the launch of the “International Health Insurance 2021" IPMI market report written by leading insurance and healthcare analyst Ian Youngman. There are now 80 million expatriates, 5 million international students, 4 million temporary foreign workers, and 18 million high net worth individuals of which 2.7 million are ultra high net worth. All of these are targets for international private medical insurance. International health insurance for expats, third...

18-05-2021 International Private Medical Insurance Magazine Reports

International Health Insurance 2020: The Definitive iPMI Market Report Is Out Now

International Health Insurance 2020: The Definitive iPMI Market Report Is Out Now

Leading international private medical insurance publisher iPMI Magazine is excited to announce the launch of “International Health Insurance 2020" - International Health Insurance for Expats, High Net Worth Individuals, 3rd Country Nationals, Domestic Nationals and Global Nomads. There are more opportunities than ever for insurers and brokers to sell health insurance globally to locals and internationals. The global demand for health insurance is rising fast; There are opportunities for health insurers and brokers; The numbers of expatriates are rising and...

17-06-2020 International Private Medical Insurance Magazine Reports

International Health Insurance 2019: The Definitive iPMI Market Report

International Health Insurance 2019: The Definitive iPMI Market Report

Leading international private medical insurance publisher iPMI Magazine is excited to announce the launch of “International Health Insurance 2019 - International Health Insurance for Expats, High Net Worth Individuals, 3rd Country Nationals, Domestic Nationals and Global Nomads: Volume 1, 2 and 3.  There are more opportunities than ever for insurers and brokers to sell health insurance globally to locals and internationals. The global demand for health insurance is rising fast; There are opportunities for health insurers and brokers; The numbers...

05-04-2019 International Private Medical Insurance Magazine Reports

BREXIT And Insurance

BREXIT And Insurance

iPMI Magazine is excited to announce another excellent report and another excellent discount, for those insurers, brokers and agents selling - or planning to sell - into the UK and/or EU markets post BREXIT. With 200 pages of critical insurance business intelligence, this new market research report from leading insurance analyst Ian Youngman features the information you need to know, before it is too late: BREXIT is a legal and logistical nightmare.  UK regulators have demanded that every...

27-04-2018 International Private Medical Insurance Magazine Reports

About iPMI Magazine Reports

Delivered digitally in PDF format, iPMI Magazine market research reports contain all the insurance and healthcare business intelligence you need to make well informed cross-border business decisions. The results of over 60 years of combined IPMI market research, iPMI Magazine reports are where leaders learn from leaders from in-depth, specific and high targeted technical market contents.